Mediastinal adenopathies are defined as the increase in the volume of the ganglions situated in the mediastinum, the region situated between the lungs near the heart, trachea, bronchial tubes, and esophagus. The discovery of adenopathies usually occurs unexpectedly during a radiological exam like an x-ray of the lungs. There are multiple causes: an infection, cancer or another illness affecting the ganglions like Hodgkin's disease
or even sarcoidosis
. To make a precise diagnosis, one of the ganglions may need to be punctured in order to examine its composition.