Osteoporosis is a generalized disease of the skeleton characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD). This reduced BMD leads to alterations in the structural organization of the bone and increases its fragility, hence why fractures are so frequent when the bone is subjected to shocks, even slight impacts when the disease is advanced. Genetic
, hormonal, and physiological factors are responsible, and it appears that lack of physical activity and vitamin D deficiency
can also exacerbate the condition. A technique named dual energy x-ray absorptiometry enables the assessment of bone mineral density in different parts of the body, and by comparing the result with reference values, it is possible to confirm a diagnosis of osteoporosis. X-rays
are sometimes useful, and treatment involves medication that slow the disease's destructive activity or increase bone formation.