The adjective hypotonic describes a reduction in tonus. A solution is hypotonic when its composition of certain molecules generating water movements is weaker than normal, but this term is more often used to describe muscular hypotonia. A muscle is called hypotonic when its tonus is diminished due to a problem of the muscle itself, or a reduction in neuron excitability. Hypertonia signifies the opposite phenomenon. Causes of muscular hypotonia include paralysis, such as following a cerebral vascular accident, a neurological disease, the consumption of certain substances like anesthetics or curares, or rarer diseases that are congenital, like the myopathies of a child.
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