Dyslexia is a learning disability associated with a difficulty in identifying letters, syllables and words. It manifests itself despite the absence of any visual, hearing, motor or intellectual impairment. There are several types of dyslexia: phonological dyslexia, surface dyslexia or lexical dyslexia - mixed dyslexia combines the latter two types. Dysorthographia is a learning disability specific to writing, translated as a difficulty to recognize, understand and reproduce written symbols. Disorders are frequently associated.
Most people with dyslexia, or dysorthographia, have no delay whatsoever until they are faced with learning reading and spelling.
The symptoms of dyslexia are:
- confusion between letters and words;
- reversal of letters, syllables or omissions and additions;
- problems with the articulation of words;
- difficulty in segmenting syllables;
- a non-fluid and laborious reading.
The symptoms of dysorthographia are close to those of dyslexia, but consist of troubles with writing:
- spelling, grammar;
- reversal of letters, syllables or omissions and additions.
It is essential to detect dyslexia early, because it is responsible for a high number of problems at school. Psychological tests are needed to rule out psychiatric, relational or emotional problems, and it is equally necessary to deal with any eye disorders. A therapist can perform various tests to detect the nature of dyslexia.
An individual with dyslexia or dysorthographia will see improvement through speech and language therapy sessions.