Hyperglycemia is a condition that manifests itself by an elevated level of sugar in the blood. This is natural after a meal and the use of glucose by the cells coupled with the action of insulin helps regulate blood sugar. Hyperglycemia mainly occurs in diabetes mellitus. It also occurs in fevers, liver disease, or when the body is under the influence of adrenaline. A fasting hyperglycemia level refers to a level of sugar in the blood greater than 1.26 g per liter: it points to the existence of diabetes mellitus.
Hyperglycemia when transient may go unnoticed, but it can cause the following symptoms:
- fatigue and drowsiness;
- intense thirst;
- weight loss despite a preserved appetite;
- frequent urination.
Chronic hyperglycemia is found almost exclusively in the context of the development of diabetes: it is responsible for the long-term complications of diabetes such as:
- a breach of the retina (retinopathy) with progression to blindness;
- impairment of the kidney (nephropathy) with progression to renal failure;
- a breach of neurons (neuropathy) with progressive degeneration;
- a breach of the arteries that promotes the formation of atheroma deposits decreasing the arterial flow;
- susceptibility to infections.
The diagnosis of hyperglycemia can be done in the laboratory, with a blood test that will measure blood sugar. These tests are performed on an empty stomach. 1.26 grams sugar per liter of blood is the threshold for diabetes.
With hyperglycemia, if the person has diabetes, he must tightly control his diabetes with the use of drugs or insulin injections. One should also, whether diabetic or not, pursue a treatment based on good diet/exercise and avoiding all cardiovascular risk factors. A measuring of glycated or glycosylated hemoglobin is carried out every three months: glucose in large quantities in the blood binds to hemoglobin in part. This is more or less indicative of the average blood glucose level over the past 90 days.