A hernia is a protrusion of an intervertebral disc between the two vertebrae, which extends outside its normal area. It can affect all the vertebrae of the spine, but most commonly affects the lower cervical and lumbar vertebrae. In the case of hernia L4-L5, the disk between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae is concerned. This is one of the most common herniated discs by virtue of the tension forces that exist at this level of the spine. This hernia is responsible for pain in the vertebrae in this area, and the compression of a nerve passing nearby can cause pain, including tingling sensations or numbness, called paresthesia, along the path of this nerve. This is often referred to as sciatica pain when it extends along the thigh, leg, and sometimes to the toes. Painkillers, anti-inflammatories, or local injections of corticosteroids are used to control pain, but surgery is sometimes considered.