Glycaemia is the amount of glucose in the blood and is usually expressed in grams per liter of blood. Glucose is essential for the proper functioning of the body because it is the main energy substrate of the body, readily available. Part of the blood glucose is converted into glycogen
, the stored form of glucose, stored mainly in the liver
and able to be mobilized at any time to compensate for low blood sugar. All these complex processes are under the control of several hormones which include insulin, the main hormone
whose role is to lower blood sugar by different processes when it is too high. Normal blood sugar is measured on blood samples taken on an empty stomach and should be between 0.70 and 1.10 gl. Lower, and it is called hypoglycemia
; higher, hyperglycemia
. If the value is between 1.1 and 1.26, glucose intolerance is suspected, and if this rate is higher than 1.26 after another check, it is called diabetes
, a condition caused by a problem with insulin.