Polyuria is the secretion of urine in too abundant quantities. It is defined as a total volume of more than 3 liters per day of urine. This may be associated with polydipsia, which is an excessive thirst. A patient with polyuria-polydipsia suffers from a vicious circle. This can be caused by many conditions such as diabetes insipidus
or diabetes mellitus. Polydipsia-polyuria can be a warning sign of a complication of diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis
. It is also a common mode of discovery of type 1 diabetes
, especially in children who begin to drink more and have an abnormally frequent need to urinate during the day.
The symptoms of polyuria -polydipsia are:
- excessive thirst;
- large amounts of urine secreted, more than 50 ml / kg per day, usually 3 liters per day for adults on average.
Diagnosis of polyuria-polydipsia is not complicated once the criterion of each symptom is highlighted by an examination or after a quantification of urine output over 24 hours. However, the difficulty comes from the search for the cause of this polyuria-polydipsia association. Blood glucose is frequently measured, as well as a dipstick, sometimes quantifying the amount of protein in the urine collected over 24 hours. Several tests are performed: an analysis of blood with electrolytes, serum creatinine and the calculation of creatinine clearance.
There are many treatments that cause polyuria-polydipsia. Prescribed treatments therefore aim to correct diabetes mellitus, control water or electrolyte disorders, or heal kidney failure. Other diseases also may cause the syndrome of polyuria-polydipsia, such as a brain tumor or a potassium leak. The treatment of this syndrome thus requires treatment of the symptom.