In the case of urinary retention, two very different pathologies can be distinguished according to whether it is a one-time urine retention, or chronic urinary retention. Acute urinary retention
(AUR) is experienced as an individual's inability to urinate even though the bladder is full. This residue accumulates gradually. Initially, the muscle used in urination, called the detrusor, contracts to allow complete drainage. But little by little, it "runs out" of power. At one stage, the bladder volume must increase to compensate. The causes of chronic urinary retention are obstacles to the proper discharge of urine, such as diseases of the prostate or urethral stricture.
==Symptoms== of chronic urinary retention are:
- disorders of urination and the need for straining to urinate;
- increased frequency of urination during the day, but without increasing the total volume of urine;
- sometimes, in the case of significant residue, there is a palpable mass in the lower part of the abdomen.
The diagnosis of chronic urinary retention is done using ultrasounds. A first one is performed before urination, then a second immediately after: it shows the abnormal presence of urine in the bladder although the patient has the feeling of having emptied the bladder completely. An ultrasound is extended to the urinary tract, including the kidneys, searching for any potential impact on these bodies.
The treatment of chronic urinary retention necessarily involves the treatment of the obstacle, that is to say, an endoscopic or surgical dilatation of the urethra in cases of narrowing of the latter, the medical treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or most often a surgical intervention. In developed stages where there are effects on the organs of the urinary tract, the bladder and kidneys, a surgical treatment is possible.