Candidiasis is a disease caused by the proliferation of fungi of the Candida family, the most common being Candida albicans
. There are several types of candidiasis, namely:
Treatments are generally effective, and dosage form varies depending on the location of the candidiasis.
Candidiasis manifests itself differently depending on its location.
- genital candidiasis: for women, there is a fungal infection of the vagina and vulva (IPV) accompanied by a white discharge (leukorrhea). In men, inflammation of the glans (balanitis) is accompanied by a discharge and itching. The space between the foreskin and glans fills with a whitish deposit.
- Cutaneous candidiasis: lesions appear if there is diaper rash in a baby, but also in the nails and body folds of children and adults, being often accompanied by sweating. These lesions turn red and are surrounded by a white rim. The typical location is in the folds of the body or other areas that provide moist and warm environments, perfectly suitable for yeast growth.
- Oral candidiasis: the inside of the cheeks and tongue turn red and dry and are covered with a white deposit called thrush, which causes difficulty in eating and alters taste.
Regarding mucosal and skin candidiasis, the diagnosis usually requires no sample for analysis. A clinical examination is sufficient to determine the existence of this type of candidiasis. A local or smear sample is often useful for genital candidiasis. However, in the case of esophageal candidiasis, in addition to a clinical examination, sampling is necessary, a culture allowing the identification of the yeasts responsible for the symptoms.
The treatment of genital, skin and oral candidiasis is via the administration of antifungal treatments, whose dosage forms are adapted to the infected area: lotions, solutions, ointments or creams. As to genital candidiasis, the sexual partner of the patient must treated consistently, especially when dealing with recurrent candidiasis. The treatment of esophageal candidiasis, specifically in immunocompromised patients, requires oral treatment.
In immunocompetent individuals, the transition to the pathogenesis of candida can be avoided by adequate hygiene and a healthy diet. For immunocompromised patients, including HIV patients, HAART therapy prevents the loss of cells involved in host defense and prevents the occurrence of candidiasis.
Original article published by
. Translated by Jeff