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Dyslexia (Dysorthographia): Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Dyslexia is defined as a <bold>learning disability associated with a difficulty in identifying letters, syllables, and words. It manifests itself despite the absence of any visual, hearing, motor, or intellectual impairment. There are several types of dyslexia: phonological dyslexia, surface dyslexia, and lexical dyslexia; mixed dyslexia combines the latter two types.

Dysorthographia is a learning disability specific to writing, translated as a difficulty to recognize, understand, and reproduce written symbols.

These two types of disorders are frequently associated.


Most people with dyslexia, or dysorthographia, have no delay whatsoever until they are faced with learning reading and spelling. The symptoms of dyslexia include confusion about letters and words; the reversal of letters, syllables, or omissions and additions; problems with the articulation of words; difficulty in segmenting syllables; and a non-fluid and laborious reading.

The symptoms of dysorthographia are close to those of dyslexia, but deal with writing troubles, including spelling and grammar; slowness; and the reversal of letters and syllables or omissions and additions.


It is essential to detect dyslexia early, because it is responsible for a high number of problems at school. Psychological tests are needed to rule out psychiatric, relational, or emotional problems, and it is equally necessary to deal with any eye disorders. A therapist can perform various tests to detect the nature of dyslexia.


An individual with dyslexia or dysorthographia will see improvement through speech and language therapy sessions.

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