Kidney stone - Definition

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The kidney stone, also known as nephrolithiasis, is a crystal composed of minerals that form in the urinary tract. Variable in size, these kidney stones can be evacuated naturally from the body, but can also block the urinary tract and cause severe pain by blocking urine upstream of the obstruction. This is called a renal colic attack, described as some of the worst pain in medicine. Kidney stones are exacerbated by insufficient hydration, as well as dietary factors, and the stagnation of urine often due to morphological abnormalities of the urinary tract. Stones can be naturally eliminated through the urine, by ultrasound, or by surgery. Their composition must be analyzed through a technique called infrared spectrophotometry.