Karyotype - Definition

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The karyotype is a representation, in the form of photography, of the set of chromosomes in a cell, arranged in pairs and by size. It is usually performed in order to detect any chromosomal abnormalities, or signs of genetic diseases. The karyotype is mainly prescribed to refine the diagnosis in cases of mental retardation, birth defects, or fertility problems in women ... A normal human karyotype consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 non-sex pairs, called autosomes, and one pair of sex chromosomes, called allosomes. In men, gender is determined by the existence of the 23rd pair of X chromosomes and a smaller Y chromosome, whereas in women, it's two X chromosomes.