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The periosteum is a membrane that covers both long and flat bones. It is not, however, present in the joints. The periosteum is essential since it ensures the growth of bones and the proper functioning of the vascular system. The periosteum has a role in protecting the bones by transmitting information to the brain in case of pain or fractures. In case of fractures, the periosteum's role is also to consolidate and repair the bone. The periosteum may also be at the source of diseases such as periostitis, which results in inflammation.