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The atrium is the upper chamber of the heart muscle that receives blood. The heart is typically composed of two atria, whose principal mission is to guarantee the transfer of blood flow from the pulmonary veins to the ventricles. The right atrium receives blood from the superior and the inferior vena cava while the left atrium is connected to the four pulmonary veins. The right and left atria are separated by the inter-atrial septum.