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As part of the human digestive system, the esophagus is the segment that connects the pharynx to the stomach, through which chewed food passes. It is approximately 25cm in length and 2cm in diameter. The content of the esophagus is transported via muscle contractions that are called peristalsis. While the esophagus has a sphincter at its upper end to limit the risks of regurgitation, it does not have one at the lower end, called the cardia of the stomach.