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Azoospermia



Definition


Azoospermia is defined as a complete absence of sperm in the semen. There are two types of azoospermia: excretory azoospermia, also called obstructive azoospermia, where the absence of sperm is due to an obstruction of the tubes carrying the sperm, and secretory azoospermia, where there is a problem with sperm production. This disorder can be caused by a testicular pathology - genetic or as a result of a testicular infection - or after the use of certain treatments. In the case of a prolonged incapacity for a couple to get pregnant, different tests will be done, for the man in the form a semen analysis to study the number and appearance of sperm present in the semen.

Symptoms


Azoospermia may manifest itself by:
  • a congenital malformation of the vas deferens and seminal vesicles, visible via imaging technique, in the case of obstructive azoospermia;
  • delayed ejaculation, where the semen is not expelled outside the body, but rather sent into the bladder;
  • sexual dysfunction or impotence associated with a hormonal problem (especially in the case of secretory azoospermia).

Diagnosis


A semen sample after 3 days of abstinence is necessary for a semen analysis. The sperm is obtained via masturbation, and then is collected in a glass jar to be quickly examined. This collection of semen is simple, quick, painless and absolutely fundamental.
Here is the composition of a normal" ejaculate:
  • Volume: 2-5 ml
  • Count: 50-180 million sperm
  • Mobility of sperm: 80% at ejaculation
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